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Final Reports

Here you can see previous projects in NordFoU and the results in the form of final project papers. A publication database can be found here.


​Description Material Contact​​


   (Photo: Tine Damkjær)

External influences spray patterns - particular focus on salt quality, vehicle speed and drive system (EPAS)

The main goals in the project are to achieve knowledge about:
1. Correlation between driving speed and spray pattern by spreading prewetted salt with disc and spreading brine with nozzles and the effect off crosswind.
2. Correlation between salt quality and spreading pattern of pre-wettet salt with disc.
3. Correlation between the drive system and the spray pattern, pre-wettet salt with disc.
This project uses the knowledge gained through other projects regarding winter maintenance on roads, but combines it in a way that is usable for the operations level of the winter maintenance organisation.
Final report
EPAS Final report v 1.1.pdf

Project reports

EPAS Report 12-Flow of salt particles 03jun.pdf
EPAS Report 13 Parameters for 3-S.pdf
EPAS Report 14 Wind net.pdf
EPAS Report 15 Wind profile.pdf
EPAS Report 16 Wind exposure.pdf
EPAS Report 17 Introduction to the salt spreading saltware 3-S.pdf
EPAS Report 18 Simulation software 3S.pdf​

​Tine Damkjær, DK


   (Photo: Vejdirektoratet)

Road Works During Night

The project investigate how to provide a good visual environment at night time road works and as a part of this how to best avoid/reduce the adverse effects of glare.
The primary aim of the project was that it should result in recommendations as bases for the improvement and coordination of existing regulations in the Nordic countries by giving different proposals.

Final report:

Road Works During Night.pdfRoad Works During Night.pdf

​Anita Ihs, SE


   (Photo: Vejdirektoratet)

Bridges without waterproofing

The project has evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of constructing concrete bridges without waterproofing.

The focal point of the project was whether such bridges can be constructed cheaper and faster than bridges with waterproofing with a durability corresponding to the durability of insulated bridges.

The conclusions of the project can be found under “Documents”

Final report:

Bridges without waterproofing.pdfBridges without waterproofing.pdf

Erik Stoltzner, DK


   (Photo: Vejdirektoratet)

Evacuation of Roadtunnels

The overall aim with this project was to complete accounts bound to strategy for evacuating and fire prevention in tunnels. To be able to identify and recommend concrete actions to take to improve the possibilities for evacuating in cases of fire and other serious incidents in a roadtunnel. These accounts and recommendations can possibly make the ground for joint nordic guidelines.

The project was indeed about strongly trafficked tunnels, in other words, two-way tunnels with seperate emergency exits and with a annual daily traffic of over 8000 vehicles per day.  

Final report:

Evacuation in tunnels.pdfEvacuation in tunnels.pdf

Harald Buvik, NO

   (Photo: Vejdirektoratet)

​Life Cycle Analyses for Bridge Management (ETSI lll)

The project ETSI has gone into its third phase. The project has provided tools which planners, contractors and road administrators can use to improve the quality and lifetime of structures. The results of the project should therefore contribute to optimise the functionality, design techniques, economy and aesthetic look throughout the entire lifetime of a bridge. Thus the project has produced a basis so that the term sustainability on a higher level can be used when talking about the bridge management.



Web page:

Timo Tirkkonen, FI


   (Photo: Vejdirektoratet)

Mobile Measurement

This study describes an attempt to improve the model which so far has been used for prediction of wet
road marking retroreflectivity when using mobile equipment. A texture measure which better should
reflect the wet weather performance of road markings, then the one which has been used up to now,
was developed. From field measurements, the new prediction model was developed and evaluated.

Final report:

Mobile measurement of road marking performance.pdfMobile measurement of road marking performance.pdf


   (Photo: Vejdirektoratet)

Modelling Residual Salt (MORS)

After a salt measure, the amount of salt on the road will gradually be reduced due to traffic and weather. This NordFoU project have developed a model which calculates the amount of residual salt on the road in the time after a salt measure. The purpose with this model, is to be able to predict the variarity of salt measures in the actual conditions on a road section. In this way, you can avoid unnessecary salt measures, while at the same time reduce the risk for creating large amount of salt which leads to freezing and slippery roads.




The Project Group:

​Skuli Thordarson (forsker)

Kai Rune Lysbakken (forsker)

Göran Blomqvis (forsker)

Mats Gustafsson (forsker)

Michel M. Eram (Projektleder)

   (Photo: Vejdirektoratet)

Nord 2000

The result of ten years of development work is now ready: The new noise calculation model Nord2000. There now is a user manual in English and a calculation model with thirty example types for estimated calculations.

The work with Nord2000 was started in 1996 by the Nordic Council in Ministers and was initially cocluded in 2001 when a new generation of a calculation model was handed over. In 2005, the Nordic road authorities made an agreement to start using the model.

​Final results

Jørgen Kragh, DK


    (Photo: Hans Bendtsen, Vejdirektoratet)

Nordtyre 1+2

Tyrelabeling and Nordic traffic noise.
The NordTyre projects have been carried out in order to clarify the possibilities of reducing traffic noise in the Nordic countries by regulating the use of vehicle tyres and road surfaces.
This is a state-of-the-art report on the measurement of tyre/road noise on various road surfaces, with emphasis on the tyre behaviour. It is the first delivery of the Nordic NordFoU project NordTyre.
The report is based on a literature study, mainly on sources in the period 2005-2011.
Focus has been on available data.

Final report:

NordTyre.pdfNordTyre.pdf  - Literature study

​Hans Bendtsen, DK

   (Photo: Hans Bendtsen, Vejdirektoratet)

Nordtyre 3

Tyrelabeling and Nordic traffic noise.

The purposes of the NordTyre project was to analyse the effect of the latest EU noise limits and noise labels for type approval of passenger car and truck tyres and to estimate the potential effects to the Nordic societies promoting less noisy tyres and road surfaces. Nordic road administrations work on reducing traffic noise by applying noise reducing road surfaces, noise barriers etc. which require significant economic resources. There is a need to know how “low noise” tyres could contribute to traffic noise mitigation and to clarify how this contribution can be optimized.
The investigation of noise from new passenger car tyres and truck tyres have been based on large series of measurements on different road surface types including typical Nordic types and ISO reference test surfaces.

​Final report:

NordTyre 3 - 1.pdf  - Analysis of data from passenger car tyres

NordTyre 3 - 2.pdf  - Noise from truck tyres

NordTyre 3 - 3.pdf  - Summary report and potential society effects

NordTyre 3 - 4.pdf  - Data report passenger car tyres

NordTyre 3 - 5.pdf  - Data report tuck tyres



​Hans Bendtsen, DK

   (Photo: Vejdirektoratet)


The purpose of the project is to establish principles for the design of road surfaces where noise levels should be limited due to the interaction between tires and the road surface. A central part of the project is to carry out a demonstration test where different surface mixtures are tested and where the rolling resistance is measured

Final report:

​Jørgen Kragh, DK



   (Photo: Vejdirektoratet)

​​Pavement Performance Models
The project should make a contribution so that existing models in Pavement Management Systems can be improved/supplemented by a better description of the development of the condition of the road pavement in relation to traffic and climate.

It is expected that the project will give road administrations an improved basis to predict the development of pavements. Thus the project will contribute to the creation of an upgrade of present planning tools. Denmark is project leader and has the main responsibility for the completion of the project. Norway, Sweden and Iceland also participate in the project.

Final report:

Rabbira Garba Saba, NO





   (Photo: Vejdirektoratet)

Safety in Tunnels

The purpose with the NordFoU project on tunnel safety was therefore to put the results from the EU projects into a Scandinavian context and relate them to special Scandinavian tunnel conditions. The project has therefore examined the results obtained from the EU-projects and deduced special Nordic requirements in order to formulate guidelines or new research and development projects. The results of the projects can be used as best practice for contractors and bridge authorities in relation to
  • Safety levels
  • Various technical solutions
  • Strategies for maintenance, supervision and traffic management

Final report:


Bernt Freiholtz, SE



   (Photo: Vejdirektoratet)

​Validation of Performance Models (PPM2)

The project is a continuation of the work carried out in the project Pavement Performance Models. The purpose was to validate the existing deterioration models by collecting – and calibrate – several test data than was done in the first phase of the project. This is to say that the model will be based on data which represents all Nordic Countries as regards variations in climatic zones and ways of constructing roads. Thus a robust model is obtained within a software program, which can describe the development in the condition of a road pavement in relation to time, traffic and climate.

It is expected that the project will give road administrations an improved basis to predict the development of pavements. Thus the project will contribute to the creation of an upgrade of present planning tools.

Final report:

Susanne Baltzer, DK        

   (Photo: Vejdirektoratet)

Emergency lights in tunnels

This project tests existing luminaries for continuously emergency lighting in tunnels with smoke. We hope that this test shall give us relevant input to what we shall have as demands for this kind of luminaries. This regards lumen output, light color, light temperature  light distribution, temperature resistance, etc.

​Final report

​Arne Jørgensen (NO)

(Photo: Vejdirektoratet)

NordLCA (Life Cycle Analyses Tools to Assess Climate Impact of Road Building) (Still going)

Reduction of climate impact is highly prioritized, but we need methods and tools that help good decisions and choices through all processes from planning to designing and construction further to operation and maintenance. Existing tools have different background in their development because of their aim. They stand well alone but would gain of cross-linking. 
The Nordic countries have largely similar conditions in terms of road construction, raw materials and machinery. We therefore wish to further develop and link the respective Nordic tools, and create national adaptations. 
Possible applications of the tools are:
Environmental budget to be used by NRA internally
Tender procedures (requirement or award criterion)
Accounting for environment after/during construction

Final report

​Bob Hamel (NO)

(Photo: Vejdirektoratet)

ROSTMOS (Road state monitoring system) (Still going)

The project objective is to develop a system for the registration / verification of road state that with high precision can monitor the condition of the road network in real-time.
The project will demonstrate how road state data can be collected and linked with other information such as weather conditions and operational measures in the form of snow clearing and gritting. It will also be shown how road state data can be used to improve the prognosis for the development in the driving conditions


​Final report

​Vaa Torgeir (NO)

(Photo: Vejdirektoratet)

DURAPAV (Durability of pavements that reduces noise and rolling resistance) (Still going)


The DURAPAV project will investigate durability of rolling resistance and noise reducing pavements through accelerated testing. The circular testing facility at VTI is seen as excellent equipment for performing accelerated testing, which can identify potential weaknesses and predict pavement failure.

The DURAPAV project will, based on the accelerated tests, seek to enhance the durability for pavement types with low rolling resistance and noise properties by optimizing the polymer distribution and mixture adhesion of the asphalt material. As the pavements need a small texture depth to provide lower rolling resistance and reducing noise, there is a potential risk of skidding problems and other surface defects. The mix design is therefore a delicate matter to secure all functional properties for the entire life time of the pavement. A lifetime that needs to be comparable with the life time of traditionally used wearing courses of 12 – 15 years.

​Final report

​Matteo Pettinari (DK)


(Photo: Vejdirektoratet)

ROMA (State assessment of road markings in the Nordic countries) (Still going)

The visibility of a road marking is dependent of its retroreflectivity. therefore, in order to ensure good visibility, there is a need of adequate maintenance routines. Furthermore, the road marking material must be of high quality, i.e. be resistant against wear from the traffic.
The purpose of the study is to ensure good road marking visibility. If there is a difference in visibility between two or more coutries, this result should be explained. Is the difference due to the road marking material, maintenance routines, road marking area ect.? Moreover, the result can be used to distribute maintenance funds in such a way that the road marking quality will be similar in all countries.

​Final report

​Jan-Erik Lundmark (SE)



Nordic Research & Development 2018
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